Caffeine in coffee and soft drinks is known for keeping people awake. It alters the circadian rhythm, which is the body’s master clock. Not getting enough sleep and being out of sync with the natural world is harmful and can be linked to diseases such as cancer and obesity. A recent study showed that caffeine can contribute to irregularities in circadian rhythm. People who drank caffeine before trying to sleep showed a delay in the release of the hormone melatonin, which typically surges at night. Studies still have to be completed about whether caffeine affects people’s inner clocks if they drink it earlier in the day. Listen to hear more about the effects of caffeine.
When we look out into the world we see empty space, the air, and solid objects, like a chair. Astrophysics professor Adam Frank says our perception of solid matter isn’t consistent with science and what we know about how atoms actually work. Throw away your image of tightly fitting marbles and open your mind to empty space and whizzing electrons in this science exploration.
These levels of listening complexity can help teachers choose stories for their students. The levels do not relate to the content of the story, but to the complexity of the vocabulary, sentence structure and language in the audio story.
These stories are easier to understand and are a good starting point for elementary students or English learners.
These stories have an average language challenge for middle and high school students, and can be scaffolded for English learners.
These stories have challenging vocabulary and language and students may need to have some background knowledge to understand the story.
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